Friday, January 21, 2011

Cooking Substitutions and Measurements

Flours: To substitute all-purpose flour for cake flour, use 1 cup minus 2 Tbsp. all-purpose for 1 cup cake flour.  To convert plain flour to self-rising, add 1/2 tsp. salt and 1 1/2 tsp. baking powder to each cup of plain flour.  As a thickening for gravy or stew, 1 Tbsp. flour equals 1 1/2 tsp. cornstarch or 1 Tbsp. quick-cooking tapioca.

Baking Powder
:  If you're out, use 1/4 tsp. soda plus 1/2 tsp. cream of tartar for each tsp. of baking powder. Or use 1/4 tsp. soda plus 1/2 cup buttermilk or sour milk.  This would replace 1/2 cup liquid required in the recipe.

Chocolate:  To substitute for unsweetened chocolate, use 3 Tbsp. cocoa plus 1 Tbsp. shortening, butter, margarine or oil to equal 1 square or 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate.

Dairy Items:  If your recipe calls for sour milk and you have only sweet milk, measure 1 Tbsp. lemon juice or vinegar in a cup and fill with fresh whole milk.  Stir and allow to stand 5 to 10 minutes before using.

Evaporated milk may be substituted for whole milk.  Use 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water for each cup of whole milk required.

If you need shredded cheese for a recipe, remember that about 1/2 pound of cheese should yield about 2 cups shredded cheese. Also remember that different cheeses weight different amounts.

For thickening custards or puddings, 2 egg yolks or egg whites have the same thickening power as one whole egg.

The following measurements equal approximately 1 pound:
2 cups butter or shortening                   
4 cups sifted, all-purpose flour                               
2 1/4 cups granulated sugar                                        
2 1/3 cups powdered sugar (superfine)                     
3 1/2 cups confectioners' sugar (4x to 10x)                       
2 1/4 cups brown sugar, firmly packed                       
2 1/8 cups rice                                                     
3 3/4 cups whole wheat flour                                        
3 cups corn meal                                                        
5 cups coffee (about)                             
2 cups finely chopped meat                        
9 large eggs (one egg is also about 1/4 cup)
1 square cooking chocolate---1 ounce
1 cup molasses---11 ounces (Most liquids are 8 ounces per cup)

Basic Measurements:

3 teaspoons=1 tablespoon
2 tablespoons=1 ounce
4 tablespoons=1 ounce
4 tablespoons=1/4 cup
16 tablespoons=1 cup
4 cups= 1 quart
4 quarts=1 gallon